Appendix 1: Glossary

Glossary of terms

Key term



In human systems, the process of adjusting to actual or expected climate and its effects, to moderate harm or take advantage of beneficial opportunities. In natural systems, the process of adjusting to actual climate and its effects. Human intervention may help these systems to adjust to expected climate and its effects.

Adaptation options

The wide range of strategies and measures that are available and appropriate for addressing adaptation. They can take the form of structural, institutional, ecological or behavioural actions.

Adaptive capacity

The ability of systems, institutions, humans and other organisms to adjust to potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities or to respond to consequences.


Something of value, which may be exposed or vulnerable to a hazard or risk. It may be something physical, environmental, cultural or financial and/or economic, and its value may be tangible, intrinsic or spiritual (see Taonga).


An initial set of critical observations or data used for comparison or a control.


The variability among all living organisms on Earth. It includes diversity within species, diversity between species and diversity of an ecosystem. The living organisms may be from any sources, such as terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes they belong to.

Capacity building

The practice of supporting an individual, community, society or organisation to respond to change by enhancing their strengths and attributes, and improving the resources available to them.

Cascading impacts

A series of events where an initial impact produces further impacts that are significantly larger than the first one. In relation to extreme weather events, an extreme hazard causes a sequence of secondary events in natural and human systems that result in major physical, natural, social and/or economic disruption. Cascading impacts are complex and multidimensional, and are associated more with the extent to which the natural and human systems are vulnerable, than with the size of the original hazard.


Informally, the average weather over a period ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. In more formal terms, a statistical description of the mean and variability of quantities, usually of surface variables such as temperature, precipitation and wind, averaged over a period (typically 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization).

More broadly, climate is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system.

Climate change

A change in the state of the climate that can be identified (eg, by using statistical tests) by changes or trends in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades to centuries. Includes natural internal climate processes and external climate forcings such as variations in solar cycles, volcanic eruptions and persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) definition of climate change specifically links it to direct or indirect human causes, as: “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods”. The UNFCCC thus makes a distinction between climate change attributable to human activities altering the atmospheric composition and climate variability attributable to natural causes.

Climate resilience

The ability to anticipate, prepare for and respond to the impacts of a changing climate, including the impacts that we can anticipate and the impacts of extreme events. It involves planning now for sea-level rise and more frequent flooding. It is also about being ready to respond to extreme events such as forest fires or extreme floods, and to trends in precipitation and temperature that emerge over time such as droughts.


Describes either the land near to the sea (eg, ‘coastal communities’) or the part of the marine environment that is strongly influenced by land-based processes (eg, ‘coastal seas’, meaning the part of the sea that is generally shallow and near shore). The landward and seaward limits of the coastal zone are not consistently defined, neither scientifically nor legally. Thus, coastal waters can either be considered as equivalent to territorial waters (extending 12 nautical miles and/or 22.2 km from mean low water), or to the full Exclusive Economic Zone, or to shelf seas, with less than 200 m water depth.

Coastal erosion

The process when the high-tide mark moves closer towards the land due to a net loss of sediment or bedrock from the shoreline. Also known as shoreline retreat.


A positive effect that a policy or measure aimed at one objective has on another objective, thereby increasing the total benefit to society or the environment.


The outcome of an event that may result from a hazard. It can be expressed quantitatively (eg, units of damage or loss, disruption period, monetary value of impacts or environmental effect), by category (eg, high-, medium- or low-level impact) or qualitatively (a description of the impacts).

Alternatively, the outcome of an event that affects objectives.

(the) Crown

Generally, executive government conducted by ministers and their departments. The Crown does not normally include organisations with their own corporate identities, such as state-owned enterprises.

Cultural asset

Material artefacts, non-material items and natural places that have cultural value.

Cultural heritage

Those aspects of the environment that contribute to an understanding and appreciation of Aotearoa New Zealand’s history and cultures. It includes historic sites, structures, places, areas, archaeological sites, sites of significance to Māori (including wāhi tapu) and cultural landscapes.


A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society, at any scale, that occurs because hazardous events interact with conditions of exposure, vulnerability and capacity, leading to human, material, economic and/or environmental losses and impacts.

Disaster risk management

Processes for designing, implementing and evaluating strategies, policies and measures to improve understanding of current and future disaster risk, foster disaster risk reduction and transfer, and promote continuous improvement in disaster preparedness, prevention and protection, response and recovery practices. The aim is to increase human security, wellbeing, quality of life and sustainable development.


The involuntary movement, individually or collectively, of people from their country or community, notably for reasons of armed conflict, civil unrest or natural or human-made disasters. In the context of this plan, displacement primarily refers to the involuntary movement of individuals or communities in response to climate change impacts.

Distributional impact

The effects of environmental policies (eg, higher transport or energy costs) across households, Māori, businesses, communities and regions. Some groups may pay more or receive fewer benefits from the policies.


An exceptionally long period of water shortage for existing ecosystems and the human population (due to low rainfall, high temperature and/or wind).

Dry year

An extended period when the energy supply in Aotearoa relies more on natural gas and coal because hydroelectric generation is reduced. This occurs because hydro lakes hold only enough water for a few weeks of winter energy demand if inflows (rainfall and snowmelt) are very low.

Dynamic adaptive pathways planning

A framework that supports climate adaptation decision-making by developing a series of actions over time (pathways). It is based on the idea of making decisions as conditions change, before severe damage occurs, and as existing policies and decisions prove no longer fit for purpose.


A functional unit consisting of living organisms, their non-living environment and the interactions within and between them. The purpose of the ecosystem defines what components belong to it and where its spatial boundaries lie. Ecosystem boundaries can change over time. Ecosystems are nested within other ecosystems and their scale can range from very small to the entire biosphere. In the current era, most ecosystems either contain people as key organisms or are influenced by the effects of human activities in their environment.

Ecosystem health

A metaphor that describes the condition of an ecosystem, by analogy with human health. The health status of an ecosystem is based not on a standard measurement but on a judgement of its resilience to change, which varies depending on which measures are used and which social aspirations are behind the assessment.

Ecological corridor

An area of habitat connecting wildlife populations that have been separated by human activities or structures.

Ecological integrity

The ability of an ecological system to support and maintain a community of organisms where the composition, diversity and functional organisation of its species is comparable to those of natural habitats within a region.

Emergency management

The process of applying knowledge, measures and practices that are necessary or desirable for the safety of the public or property, and are designed to guard against, prevent, reduce, recover from or overcome any hazard, harm or loss associated with any emergency. Activities include planning, organising, coordinating and implementing those measures, knowledge and practices.


In the context of climate change, emissions of greenhouse gases, precursors of greenhouse gases and aerosols caused by human activities. These activities include the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, land use and land-use change, livestock production, fertilisation, waste management and industrial processes.


The principle of being fair and impartial, often also aligned with ideas of equality and justice. It provides a basis for understanding how the impacts of, and responses to, climate change (including costs and benefits) are distributed in and by society in more or less equal ways. The principle can be applied in understanding who is responsible for climate impacts and policies; how those impacts and policies are distributed across society, generations and gender; and who participates and controls the processes of decision-making.


The process in which actions of water, wind or ice wear away land.


Being present in a place or setting that could be adversely affected. Those that could be harmed in that environment include people; livelihoods; species or ecosystems; environmental functions, services and resources; infrastructure; and economic, social or cultural assets.

Extreme weather event

An event that is rare at a particular place and time of year. What is ‘extreme weather’ may vary from place to place in an absolute sense. The measure of what is ‘rare’ may also vary but it involves the occurrence of a value of a weather or climate variable above (or below) a threshold value near the upper (or lower) ends of the range of observed values of the variable. In general, an extreme weather event would be as rare as, or rarer than, the 10th or 90th percentile of a probability density function estimated from observations.

When a pattern of extreme weather persists for some time, such as a season, it may be classified as an extreme climate event, especially if it yields an average or total that is itself extreme (eg, high temperature, drought or heavy rainfall over a season).

Fiscal impacts

The implications a policy or event has for government expenditure or revenue.


An event where the normal boundaries of a stream or other water body overflow, or water builds up over areas that are not normally underwater. Floods can be caused by unusually heavy rain – for example, during storms and cyclones. Floods include river (fluvial) floods, flash floods, urban floods, rain (pluvial) floods, sewer floods, coastal floods and glacial lake outburst floods.

Frequency (of a hazard)

The number or rate of occurrences of hazards, usually over a particular period.


The governing architecture and processes of interaction and decision-making that exist in and between governments, economic and social institutions.

Governance permeates all aspects of Aotearoa, from Te Tiriti partnership between Māori and the Crown, to the relationship between local government and communities, and from the economy to the built environment and to natural ecosystems.

Greenhouse gas

Gas in the atmosphere, which may have natural or human causes, that absorbs and emits radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of radiation emitted by the Earth’s oceans and land surfaces, by the atmosphere itself and by clouds. This property causes the greenhouse effect.


The main greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere are water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane and ozone. Human-made greenhouse gases include sulphur hexafluoride, hydrofluorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons.

Gross domestic product (GDP)

The sum of the gross value that all resident and non-resident producers in the economy added, at purchasers’ prices, to a country or region plus any taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products in a country or a geographic region for a given period, normally one year. GDP is calculated without deducting for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources.


The potential occurrence of a natural or human-induced physical event or trend that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, as well as damage and loss to property, infrastructure, livelihoods, service provision, ecosystems and environmental resources.


A period of abnormally hot weather often defined with reference to a relative temperature threshold, lasting from two days to months.


The consequences of realised risks on natural and human systems, where risks result from the interactions of climate-related hazards (including extreme weather events), exposure and vulnerability. They are generally effects on human lives, livelihoods, health and wellbeing; ecosystems and species; economic, social and cultural assets; services (including ecosystem services); and infrastructure. They can be harmful or beneficial. Also known as consequences or outcomes.

Indigenous knowledge

The understandings, skills and philosophies developed by societies with long histories of interaction with their natural surroundings. For many indigenous peoples, indigenous knowledge informs decision-making about fundamental aspects of life, from day-to-day activities to longer-term actions. This knowledge is integral to cultural complexes, which also include language, systems of classification, resource-use practices, social interactions, values, ritual and spirituality. These distinctive ways of knowing are important facets of the world’s cultural diversity.


The designed and built set of physical systems, along with their institutional arrangements, that interact with the broader environment to provide services to people and communities that support economic growth, health, quality of life and safety.

Insurance/ reinsurance

A group of financial instruments for sharing and transferring risk among a pool of at-risk households, businesses and/or governments.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change. The IPCC is organised into three working groups and a task force:

  • Working Group I (WGI) – physical science basis
  • Working Group II (WGII) – impacts, adaptation and vulnerability
  • Working Group III (WGIII) – mitigation
  • Task Force on national greenhouse gas inventories.

Land use

All of the arrangements, activities and inputs (a set of human actions) that people undertake in a certain type of land cover (eg, forest land, cropland, grassland, wetland and settlements).

Alternatively, the social and economic purposes for which land is managed (eg, grazing, timber extraction, conservation and city dwelling).


Actions that may lead to increased risk of adverse climate-related outcomes, including increased greenhouse gas emissions, increased vulnerability to climate change and reduced welfare, now or in the future. Maladaptation is usually an unintended consequence.

Managed retreat

The purposeful, coordinated movement of people and assets (eg, buildings and infrastructure) away from risks. This may involve the movement of a person, infrastructure (eg, building or road) or community. It can occur in response to a variety of hazards, such as flood, wildfire or drought.

Māori values and principles

Values and principles that come from Māori views of the world and that Māori use to make sense of, experience and interpret the world. They form the basis for Māori ethics and principles.


In the context of climate change, a human intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases.

Nature-based solutions

Solutions that are inspired and supported by nature and are cost effective, and at the same time provide environmental, social and economic benefits and help build resilience. Such solutions bring more, and more diverse, nature and natural features (eg, vegetation and water features) and processes into cities, landscapes and seascapes, through locally adapted, resource-efficient and systemic interventions. For example, using vegetation (eg, street trees or green roofs) or water elements (eg, rivers or water-treatment facilities) can help reduce heat in urban areas or support stormwater and flood management.

Ocean acidification

A reduction in the pH of the ocean, accompanied by other chemical changes (primarily in the levels of carbonate and bicarbonate ions), over an extended period, typically decades or longer, which is caused primarily by uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, but can also be caused by other chemical additions or subtractions from the ocean. Anthropogenic ocean acidification is the component of pH reduction that is caused by human activity. Anthropogenic Ocean Acidification refers to the component of pH reduction that is caused by human activity (IPCC, 2011, p 37). It is a process in which the pH of the ocean reduces (becomes more acidic) and other chemical changes occur (mainly in the levels of carbonate and bicarbonate ions) over several decades or longer. The main cause is uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere but other chemical additions or subtractions from the ocean can contribute.

Oranga Marae

Oranga Marae is a programme of support, advice and investment for marae. It gives whānau and hapū advice and support to help develop their marae and achieve their goals. This support may include building projects and activities to revitalise cultural knowledge. A key goal of the programme is to strengthen the ability of marae to pass on their ancestral knowledge of whaikōrero, karanga and local mātauranga, tikanga and kawa to descendants.


The evolution of natural and/or human systems over time towards a future state. Pathway concepts range from sets of quantitative and qualitative scenarios or narratives of potential futures to solution-oriented, decision-making processes to achieve desirable social goals. Pathway approaches typically focus on biophysical, techno-economic and/or socio-behavioural changes, and involve various dynamics, goals and participants across different scales.


Urban or rural areas, ranging from neighbourhoods to towns and regions. Adaptation must address both the physical elements of a place (eg, homes, buildings, infrastructure and spaces around them) and the social elements (eg, the identity of people and communities, cultural value).

Regenerative agriculture

An approach to land management that recognises how all aspects of agriculture are connected through a network. This differs from a linear view of agriculture as a supply chain. The principles behind regenerative agriculture aim to restore soil and ecosystem health, address inequality and leave our land, waters and climate in better shape for future generations.


The capacity of interconnected social, economic and ecological systems to cope with a hazardous event, trend or disturbance, by responding or reorganising in ways that maintain their essential function, identity and structure. Resilience is a positive attribute when it allows systems to maintain their capacity to adapt, learn and/or transform.


The process of adding new technology or features to older systems, especially industrial installations and buildings.


The potential for adverse consequences for human or ecological systems, recognising the diversity of values and objectives associated with such systems. In the context of climate change, risks can arise from potential impacts of climate change as well as human responses to climate change. Adverse consequences may affect human lives, livelihoods, health and wellbeing; economic, social and cultural assets and investments; infrastructure; services (including ecosystem services); and ecosystems and species.

Risk assessment

The scientific estimation of risks, which may be either quantitative or qualitative.

Risk management

The process of making plans, actions, strategies or policies to reduce the likelihood and/or scale of potential adverse consequences, based on assessed or perceived risks.

Sea-level rise

Change to the height of sea levels over time, which may occur globally or locally. Causes may be:

  • a change in ocean volume as a result of a change in the mass of water in the ocean (eg, due to melt of glaciers and ice sheets)
  • changes in ocean volume as a result of changes in ocean water density (eg, expansion under warmer conditions)
  • changes in the shape of the ocean basins and changes in Earth’s gravitational and rotational fields
  • local subsidence or uplift of the land.

Storm surge

The temporary increase, at a particular location, in the height of the sea due to extreme meteorological conditions (low atmospheric pressure and/or strong winds). It is the excess in height above the level expected from the tidal variation alone at that time and place.


In the context of climate change, an event or trend, often not climate-related, that has an important effect on the system exposed and can increase vulnerability to climate-related risk.

Sustainable/ sustainability

Describes conditions where natural and human systems can persist. Ecosystems continuously function, biodiversity is high, natural resources are recycled and, in the human sector, people successfully apply justice and equity.

Three waters

Drinking water, wastewater and stormwater.

Tipping point

A critical threshold beyond which a system reorganises, often abruptly and/or irreversibly.


A state of incomplete knowledge that can result from a lack of information or from disagreement about what is known or even knowable. It may occur for many reasons. For example, the data may be imprecise, definitions of concepts or terminology may be ambiguous, understanding of critical processes may be incomplete, or projections of human behaviour may be in doubt.

Urban heat islands

Heat islands are urbanised areas that experience higher temperatures than outlying areas. Structures such as buildings, roads and other infrastructure absorb and re-emit the sun’s heat more than natural landscapes such as forests and water bodies. Urban areas, where these structures are highly concentrated and greenery is limited, become ‘islands’ of higher temperatures relative to outlying areas.

Vulnerability/ vulnerable

Being predisposed or more likely to be adversely affected. Elements that contribute to this concept include sensitivity or susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to cope and adapt.


The health, happiness and prosperity of an individual or group. It can cover material wellbeing (eg, income and wealth, jobs and earnings, and housing), health (eg, health status and work–life balance), security (eg, personal security and environmental quality), social relations (eg, social connection, subjective wellbeing, cultural identity and education) and freedom of choice and action (eg, civic engagement and governance).

Whānau Ora

Whānau Ora puts whānau and families in control of the services they need to work together, build on their strengths and achieve their aspirations.

Wilding conifers

Introduced conifers that are spreading across the landscape through natural regeneration. Also known as wilding pines.

Zoonotic disease

A disease that can be naturally transferable from vertebrate animals to humans.

Note: This glossary is based on definitions used by the IPCC.

List of acronyms and abbreviations


Full name


Animal Health Laboratory


Te Mana o te Taiao – Aotearoa New Zealand Biodiversity Strategy


Climate Change Adaptation Action Plan


Climate Emergency Response Fund


Department of Internal Affairs


Department of Conservation


Toka Tū Ake EQC


Financial Markets Authority


Fisheries New Zealand


Gross domestic product


Health National Adaptation Plan


Te Tūāpapa Kura Kāinga – Ministry of Housing and Urban Development


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change


International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy


Toitū Te Whenua Land Information Memorandum


Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment


Ministry for Culture and Heritage


Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade


Ministry for the Environment


Ministry of Defence


Ministry of Education


Manatū Hauora Ministry of Health


Te Manatū Waka Ministry of Transport


Ministry for Primary Industries


Ministry of Social Development


National Emergency Management Agency


National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research


National Policy Statement on Indigenous Biodiversity


Plant Health Environment Laboratory


Reserve Bank of New Zealand


Te Puni Kōkiri – Ministry of Māori Development


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


External Reporting Board

Te reo Māori glossary

Te reo Māori


Ara whakamua

The path forward.


Community, section of a kinship group, family, society.


Kinship group, clan, subtribe.


Tribe, large group descended from a common ancestor.

Kaitiaki or kaitiakitanga

Guardian or guardianship, stewardship – for example, of natural resources.


Formal call, ceremonial call, welcome call.

Kaupapa Māori

Māori approach, topic, customary practice, institution, agenda, principles, ideology – a philosophical doctrine incorporating the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values of Māori society.


Ceremony, protocol.


Government, dominion, rule, governorship.


School, education, learning gathering.

Mahinga kai

Places where traditional food and other natural resources are obtained.


Prestige, authority, control, power, influence, status, spiritual power, charisma.

Mana motuhake


Mana whenua

Power from and/or authority over land or territory.


Courtyard – the open area in front of the wharenui (meeting house) where formal greetings and discussions take place. Often also used to include the complex of buildings around the marae.

Marau ā-kura

Ministry of Education term referring to a living, breathing curriculum. Marau ā-kura reflects the expectations and aspirations of the whānau, hapū and iwi.

Mātauranga (Māori)

Māori knowledge systems and worldviews, including traditional concepts.


Knowledge with an iwi-specific base.


Life principle, life force, vital essence, special nature, a material symbol of a life principle, source of emotions – the essential quality and vitality of a being or entity. Also used for a physical object, individual, ecosystem or social group in which this essence is located.


Free from tapu, ordinary, unrestricted.


Original home, home base, village, communal Māori land.


Earth, earth mother and wife of Ranginui – all living things originate from Papatūānuku and Ranginui in Māori mythology.


Support, supporter, stalwart, mentor, symbol of support, metaphoric post – a person, group, iwi, gathering or object that strongly supports a cause or is a territorial symbol (such as a mountain or landmark) representing that support.


Chieftainship, right to exercise authority, chiefly authority, ownership, leadership of a social group.


Atua (God)of the sky and husband of Papatūānuku – all living things originate from Papatūānuku and Ranginui in Māori mythology.

Rongoā crops

Medicinal plants.

Tāne mahuta

Atua (God) of the forests and birds and one of the children of Ranginui and Papatūānuku.


Atua (God) of the sea and fish. One of the offspring of Ranginui and Papatūānuku.

Tangata whenua

The people of the land, local indigenous people. Māori are tangata whenua of the land on which they whakapapa back to.

Taonga/taonga Māori

Treasure, anything prized – applied to anything considered to be of value, including socially or culturally valuable objects, resources, phenomena, ideas and techniques.


Sacred, prohibited, restricted, set apart.

Te ao Māori

The Māori world.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi/Te Tiriti

The Treaty of Waitangi. Note: While these terms are used interchangeably, the national adaptation plan acknowledges that the English version and te reo Māori translation are separate documents and differ in a number of respects.


Custom, practice, correct protocol – the customary system of values and practices that have developed over time and are deeply embedded in the social context.


Burial ground.

Wāhi tapu

Sacred site – a place subject to long-term ritual restrictions on access or use, such as a burial ground, a battle site or a place where tapu objects were placed.


Conference, forum, seminar.


Oratory, formal speech-making.


Genealogy, genealogical table, lineage, descent.


Proverb, significant saying.


Family, extended family, family connection.

Whenua (Māori)

Māori land. There are three types of whenua Māori: Māori freehold land, Māori customary land and general land owned by Māori.

Appendix 2: Climate risks addressed by this first plan

∗ The risk has disproportionate impacts on Māori.

♦ The risk is of particular significance to Māori.

The ten most significant risks are the first two risks of each issue; N1, N2, H1, H2, E1, E2, B1, B2, G1, G2.

Natural (N)

  1. N1 Risks to coastal ecosystems, including the intertidal zone, estuaries, dunes, coastal lakes and wetlands, due to ongoing sea-level rise and extreme weather events.
  2. N2 Risks to indigenous ecosystems and species from the enhanced spread, survival and establishment of invasive species due to climate change.
  3. N3 Risks to riverine ecosystems and species from alterations in the volume and variability of water flow, increased water temperatures and more dynamic morphology (ie, erosion and deposition) due to changes in rainfall and temperature.
  4. N4 Risks to wetland ecosystems and species, particularly in eastern and northern parts of Aotearoa, from reduced moisture status due to reduced rainfall.
  5. N5 Risks to migratory and/or coastal and river-bed nesting birds due to reduced ocean productivity, ongoing sea-level rise and altered river flows.
  6. N6 Risks to lake ecosystems due to changes in temperature, lake water residence time and thermal stratification and mixing.
  7. N7 Risks to terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems due to increased extreme weather events, drought and fire weather.
  8. N8 Risks to oceanic ecosystem productivity and functioning due to changes in sea surface temperature, ocean mixing, nutrient availability, chemical composition and vertical particle flux
  9. N9 Risks to sub-alpine ecosystems due to changes in temperature and a reduction in snow cover.
  10. N10 Risks to carbonate-based, hard-shelled species from ocean acidification due to increased atmospheric concentrations of CO2.
  11. N11 Risks to the long-term composition and stability of indigenous forest ecosystems due to changes in temperature, rainfall, wind and drought.

Human (H)

  1. H1 Risks to social cohesion and community wellbeing from displacement of individuals, families and communities due to climate change impacts.∗
  2. H2 Risks of exacerbating existing inequities and creating new and additional inequities due to differential distribution of climate change impacts.∗
  3. H3 Risks to physical health from exposure to storm events, heatwaves, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, water availability and resource quality and accessibility due to changes in temperature, rainfall and extreme weather events.
  4. H4 Risks of conflict, disruption and loss of trust in government from changing patterns in the value of assets and competition for access to scarce resources primarily due to extreme weather events and ongoing sea-level rise.∗
  5. H5 Risks to Māori social, cultural, spiritual and economic wellbeing from loss and degradation of lands and waters, as well as cultural assets such as marae, due to ongoing sea-level rise, changes in rainfall and drought.♦
  6. H6 Risks to Māori social, cultural, spiritual and economic wellbeing from loss of species and biodiversity due to greater climate variability and ongoing sea-level rise.♦
  7. H7 Risks to mental health, identity, autonomy and sense of belonging and wellbeing from trauma due to ongoing sea-level rise, extreme weather events and drought.∗
  8. H8 Risks to Māori and European cultural heritage sites due to ongoing sea-level rise, extreme weather events and increasing fire weather.♦

Economy (E)

  1. E1 Risks to governments from economic costs associated with lost productivity, disaster relief expenditure and unfunded contingent liabilities due to extreme events and ongoing, gradual changes.
  2. E2 Risks to the financial system from instability due to extreme weather events and ongoing, gradual changes.
  3. E3 Risks to land-based primary sector productivity and output due to changes in mean rainfall and temperature, seasonality, weather extremes and changes in the distribution of invasive species.
  4. E4 Risks to tourism from changes to landscapes and ecosystems and impacts on lifeline infrastructure, due to extreme weather events and ongoing, gradual changes.
  5. E5 Risks to fisheries from changes in the characteristics, productivity and spatial distribution of fish stocks due to changes in ocean temperature and acidification.
  6. E6 Risks to the insurability of assets due to ongoing sea-level rise and extreme weather events.
  7. E7 Risks to businesses and public organisations from supply chain and distribution network disruptions due to extreme weather events and ongoing, gradual changes.

Built (B)

  1. B1 Risk to potable water supplies (availability and quality) due to changes in rainfall, temperature, drought, extreme weather events and ongoing sea-level rise.∗
  2. B2 Risks to buildings due to extreme weather events, drought, increased fire weather and ongoing sea-level rise.∗
  3. B3 Risks to landfills and contaminated sites due to extreme weather events and ongoing sea-level rise.
  4. B4 Risk to wastewater and stormwater systems (and levels of service) due to extreme weather events and ongoing sea-level rise.∗
  5. B5 Risks to ports and associated infrastructure due to extreme weather events and ongoing sea-level rise.
  6. B6 Risks to linear transport networks due to changes in temperature, extreme weather events and ongoing sea-level rise.∗
  7. B7 Risk to airports due to changes in temperature, wind, extreme weather events and ongoing sea-level rise.
  8. B8 Risks to electricity infrastructure due to changes in temperature, rainfall, snow, extreme weather events, wind and increased fire weather.
  9. B9 Risks to telecommunications infrastructure (risk in addition to those identified in the National Climate Change Risk Assessment 2020).

Governance (G)

  1. G1 Risk of maladaptation across all domains due to the application of practices, processes and tools that do not account for uncertainty and change over long timeframes.
  2. G2 Risks that climate change impacts across all domains will be exacerbated because current institutional arrangements are not fit for climate change adaptation.
  3. G3 Risks to governments and businesses from climate change-related litigation, due to inadequate or mistimed climate change adaptation.
  4. G4 Risk of a breach of Treaty obligations from a failure to engage adequately with, and protect, current and future generations of Māori from the impacts of climate change.♦
  5. G5 Risks of delayed adaptation and maladaptation due to knowledge gaps resulting from under-investment in climate adaptation research and capacity building.
  6. G6 Risks to the ability of the emergency management system to respond to an increasing frequency and scale of compounding and cascading climate change impacts in Aotearoa and the Pacific region.∗
  7. G7 Risk that effective climate change adaptation policy will not be implemented and sustained due to a failure to secure sufficient parliamentary agreement.
  8. G8 Risk to the ability of democratic institutions to follow due democratic decision-making processes under pressure from an increasing frequency and scale of compounding and cascading climate change impacts.∗

Source: National Climate Change Risk Assessment 2020